General Description - Trunk-Hip-Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthotics PDF Print E-mail

A trunk-hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis (THKAFO) consists of a spinal orthosis in addition to a HKAFO for control of trunk motion and spinal alignment. A THKAFO is indicated in patients with paraplegia and is very difficult to don and doff.


  • Reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) - An RGO consists of bilateral KAFOs with posteriorly offset locking knee joints, hip joints, and a custom-molded pelvic girdle with a thoracic extension. The hip joints are coupled with cables preventing bilateral hip flexion simultaneously. The hip extension on one side coupling hip flexion on the other side through the cables produces reciprocal walking gait pattern. The RGO combined with functional electronic stimulation (FES) can be used for 2-point or 4-point gait patterns in ambulatory paraplegic or tetraplegic (C8) patients. Using the RGO with FES can double the patient's optimum gait speed, lower blood pressure and heart rate, and increase oxygen uptake as compared with ambulating with the RGO without FES.
  • Para walker - This device is a hip guidance orthosis, which consists of bilateral KAFOs with a ball-bearing hip joint and a body brace. Ambulation is performed through trunk motion transmitted to the lower extremities with hip flexion and extension via the brace. Hip flexion is restricted by a stop, and hip extension may be free or limited by a stop. The para walker is developed for patients with SCI. A study of 5 paraplegic patients found an average reduction in oxygen consumption of 27%, with 33% faster ambulatory rate compared with the RGO.
  • Parapodium - This device is developed for pediatric myelodysplastic patients to allow them to stand without crutches for functional activities with their upper limbs free. The parapodium consists of a shoe clamp, aluminum uprights, a foam knee block, and back and chest panels. Hip and knee may be locked for standing and unlocked for sitting. A torque converter under the base allows side-to-side rocking to be translated into forward propulsion.
  • Standing frame - This allows standing but does not permit hip and knee flexion. The standing frame is used for children to learn standing balance and achieve a swing-through gait.


0 #1 waseem 2013-03-01 01:20
:-) thank u very much for providing this kind of information..keep it up ..
thak u

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